UNIT 1 OF LEVEL 4A

VOCABULARY4A-U1-VACA

V고 있다

DEFINITION

It is a Sentence Ending added to a verb that describes an action which has done before and its state of the action is still continuing until now. Mostly it is combined with verbs related to wearing clothes and ornaments, such as 입다, 쓰다, 신다, 끼다, 벗다.

CONJUGATION

Remove suffix ‘다’ and combine with ‘고 있다 ’  

입다 → 입고 있다

쓰다 → 쓰고 있다

신다 → 신고 있다

끼다 → 끼고 있다

벗다 → 벗고 있다

V고있다

** It should be differentiated from ‘고 있다’with normal action verbs which expresses an action in progress whereas this is for expressing a state done before in progress.

EXAMPLES

우리 언니는 까만 구두를 신고 있어요. My sister is wearing black shoes.

A : 누가 애니씨예요? Who’s Annie?

B : 노란 모자를 쓰고 있는 사람이에요. she’s the one who is wearing the yellow hat.

N이가아니다

DEFINITION

It is a Sentence Ending used to describe “not to be ‘Noun‘” which is negative form of ‘Noun + 이다[이에요/예요]’. it is used such as ‘아니에요, 아닙니다, 아니다 or 아니야’.It is considered adjective so that all conjugations concerning this follow the same ways of other adjectives.

N이가아니다1

N이가아니다2

A아어보이다

DEFINITION

It is the Sentence Ending attached after adjective and used to guess or express the perception of the surface of the person or a thing at a glance such as likeness, resemblance or similarity. It is similar to ‘~it looks’ in English. The meaning of ‘보이다’is to be seen which is a passive verb so that it comes after ‘이/가’.

CONJUGATION

If the adjective stem’s last vowel ends with ‘ㅏ’ or ‘ㅗ’ + – 아 보이다  

낮다 → 낮아 보이다

달다 → 달아 보이다

높다 → 높아 보이다

밝다 → 밝아 보이다

얇다 → 얇아 보이다

빨갛다 → 빨개 보이다 [‘ㅎ’ irregular]

In all other cases(‘ㅓ’,’ㅜ’,’ㅡ’,’ㅣ’), add -어 보이다

세다 → 세 보이다

넓다 → 넓어 보이다

크다 → 커 보이다

슬프다 → 슬퍼 보이다 [‘ㅡ’ irregular]

귀엽다 → 귀여워 보이다 [‘ㅂ’ irregualr]

흐리다 → 흐려 보이다

If the adjective stem’s last vowel ends with ‘하다’ → 해 보이다        

편하다 → 편해 보이다

유명하다 → 유명해 보이다

깔끔하다 → 깔끔해 보이다

비슷하다 → 비슷해 보이다

속상하다 → 속상해 보이다

섭섭하다 → 섭섭해 보이다

A아어보이다

AV데

DEFINITION

It is a Conjunctive Ending used to connect two clauses to explain that some situation contrast each otheras ‘but’ or ‘however’ in English. This is also used to present or explain a background situation or a reason for the following clause.

CONJUGATION

In case of adjectives

If the adjective stem word ends with a vowel + -ㄴ 데 : 

크다 → 큰데

세다 → 센데

슬프다 → 슬픈데  [‘ㅡ’ irregular]

흐리다 → 흐린데

대단하다 → 대단한데

If the adjective stem word ends with a consonant + -은데 : 

달다 → 단데 [‘ㄹ’ irregular]

높다 → 높은데

얇다 → 얇은데

빨갛다 → 빨간데 [‘ㅎ’ irregular]

귀엽다 → 귀여운데 [‘ㅂ’ irregular]

In case of verbs

Remove suffix ‘다’ and combine with ‘-는데’ 

가다 → 가는데

오다 → 오는데

먹다 → 먹는데

읽다 → 읽는데

앉다 → 앉는데

닦다 → 닦는데

AV데1

EXAMPLES

애니 씨는 매운 음식을 잘 먹는데 마이클 씨는 잘 먹지 못 해요. Annie can eat spicy food, but Michael cannot.

이 옷은 비싼데 예쁘지 않아요. These clothes are expensive but not so pretty.

A : 시험 잘 봤어요? Did you do well on the test?

B : 아니요, 공부는 많이 했는데 시험은 잘 못 봤어요. I had studied hard but didn’t do well on the test.

AV데2

ㅎIRREGULAR

DEFINITION

‘ㅎ’Irregular conjugation occurs in adjectives whose stem end in ‘ㅎ’. When this irregular adjectivesmeet ‘아/어’ conjugation such as ‘아/어요’or 았었/어요’,’ㅎ’is droppedand ‘-아/어’change to‘-애’and ‘-야’change to ‘-얘’.Further more, when they meet vowel conjugation (으) such as (으)니까,(으)면,(으)ㄹ 거에요,‘ㅎ’is canceled. However, adjective ‘좋다’and verb ‘놓다’or ‘넣다’are not ‘ㅎ’Irregular so they change as usual.

  1. Irregular + Vowel-starting Conjugation → ‘Dropped
  2. Irregular + /Conjugation →/Change To ‘Or ‘
  3. Irregular + Consonant-starting Conjugation → Follow Regular Conjugation   
  4. No Irregularity à Follow Regular Conjugation

ㅎirregular

** They are verbs so follow their own conjugation.

EXAMPLES

밤이 되서 하늘이 까맣습니다.  As night fell, the sky turned into black.

시장에서 노란 색하고 파란 색의 티셔츠를 하나 샀어요. I bought  yellow and blue T-shirts in the market.

예쁜 장미꽃이 빨갛게 피었습니다. Pretty roses have been redly blossomed.

옷이 너무 하야면 금방 더러워진다. If the clothes too white, it will get dirty quickly.

이 책이 어떻습니까? How do you think about this book?

저렇게 하면 안 돼요. You shouldn’t do it like that.

그러면 선생님이 화를 낼거야. The teacher may be mad at you if you do so.

너무 늦었어. 그러니까 빨리 집에 돌아가. It’s too late, so you’d better go home right now.

어떤 영화를 좋아해요? What kind of movie do you like?

HOMEWORK

Create 3 sentences using , ‘V-고 있다’.

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Create 3 sentences using, ‘N/가 아니다’.

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Create 3 sentences using , ‘A-/어 보이다’.

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Create 3 sentences using,‘A-()ㄴ데’.

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Create 3 sentences using,‘V-는데’.

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Create 3 sentences using, ‘Irregular.

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Vocabulary Practice : https://app.box.com/s/d5rwynwyuvwmu3p33qg0

A-아/어 보이다 : https://app.box.com/s/v7722msr5o9y9l2p39pz

A/V-데 : https://app.box.com/s/h7cs0vppgbd4kw6ihqig

StudyBookListening: https://app.box.com/s/rpncmynj4c8t9laqbtdc

WorkBookListening: https://app.box.com/s/5hv9kvmpmd01i9sdqiwi

 

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